James Woodruff

Writer

Articles for Business and Finance

For over 30 years, James has been a management consultant to more than 1,000 small businesses. As a senior management consultant and business owner, James used his technical expertise to conduct an analysis of a company's operational, financial and business management challenges. He then would create an action plan to maximize profits, improve business performance and propose solutions to solve organizational issues that would impact a companies growth.

As an independent writer, James :
* has meticulous attention for details, especially grammar, sentence flow, research and use of authoritative references.
* commonly uses analogies, anecdotes and stories to help his readers understand complex terms and concepts.
* is experienced using AP Style.

James graduated from Georgia Tech with a Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering and received an MBA from Columbia University Graduate School of Business.
Categories
Content Types
Website Copy, Article, Blog Post, Case Study, Product Description, Whitepaper
More Information
Columbia University Graduate School of Business, Master of Business Administration
Georgia Institute of Technology, Bachelor of Mechanical Engineeringf
Roswell, Ga.|English
Publications

Business

27
Types of Sources of Finance
bizfluent.comArticle
Types of Sources of Finance

Identify the different ways a small business owner can finance the startup and growth of the company.

August, 29 2018
Definition of Audit Procedures
bizfluent.com
Definition of Audit Procedures

Discuss the process of conducting an audit. Outline the objectives, types of audits, procedures and types of management assertions.

August, 29 2018
Definition of Organizational Strategy
bizfluent.comArticle
Definition of Organizational Strategy

Define organizational strategy.

August, 22 2018
Difference Between SWOT & TOWS Analysis
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Difference Between SWOT & TOWS Analysis

Have you conducted at SWOT analysis on your business lately? You should. Companies and their competitive environments are constantly changing. Strategies must be continuously analyzed and updated to remain in business. A business owner must stay on top of and adapt to these changes, if he wants to survive. Combining a SWOT analysis with TOWS strategies gives small business owners the basis they need to build their companies and move forward.

May, 10 2018
What Is Budget Variance Analysis?
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
What Is Budget Variance Analysis?

Every small business owner should have a budget that lays out the future course of the company's activities. A budget shows where the sales will come from and how the money will be spent, with the ultimate goal to produce a profit. While budgets are great for planning, they are also a valuable management tool to keep the business on track to meet its objective. The way to accomplish this goal is known as budget variance analysis.

May, 11 2018
The Advantages of Cost Control
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
The Advantages of Cost Control

The general principle of operating a business is to make a profit. Right? But, what is the best way to make that happen? The answer is cost controls. If you start out the year with the goal of making a specific profit level, then having an effective set of cost controls improves the likelihood of achieving that profit objective. The advantage of cost controls is that it enables the company to increase its profits and to use those funds to improve all aspects of its operations.

May, 15 2018
Cost to Sales Revenue Ratio
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Cost to Sales Revenue Ratio

You've started a business. Sales are coming in, and money is going out. Are you making the profit the company is supposed to make? Do you know what your gross profit is? Are you using the right financial metrics to get the answers to these questions? A small business owner should use an organized reporting system that produces this information.

May, 16 2018
Factors That Contribute to the Change in Net Profit Margin
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Factors That Contribute to the Change in Net Profit Margin

Making a profit in a business is akin to a conductor leading an orchestra. All the instruments must come together to produce a pleasing harmony. And so it is with a company. A small business owner has to direct the operations of his company to produce that pleasant harmonious sound: a sweet-toned profit!

May, 16 2018
Major Objectives of a Budget System
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Major Objectives of a Budget System

Do you think creating a budget is a waste of time? Think again. An operating budget is an essential management tool for all small business owners and should not be ignored. You probably spend most of your days putting out fires. Here's why an effective operating budget can eliminate a lot of that stress in your life.

May, 18 2018
Future Value vs. Present Value
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Future Value vs. Present Value

Understanding the time value of money is an essential management skill when evaluating the benefits of capital expenditure projects.

May, 16 2018
Cash Inflows & Outflows of Operations
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Cash Inflows & Outflows of Operations

Profits are important, but it takes cash to pay the the bills. The more important accounting report is the cash flow statement.

June, 1 2018
Debt-to-Tangible-Net-Worth Ratio
bizfluent.comArticle
Debt-to-Tangible-Net-Worth Ratio

The debt to tangible net worth ratio is a critical performance measure of a company's financial health. Bankers and managers use this ratio to control and limit debt in relation to equity.

June, 4 2018
The Difference Between Accounts Payable and Notes Payable
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
The Difference Between Accounts Payable and Notes Payable

Discuss the differences between accounts payable and notes payable. Explain how each is used to finance a company's operations and the legal ramifications of each type.

June, 6 2018
How to Calculate a Working Capital Balance Sheet
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
How to Calculate a Working Capital Balance Sheet

Define the calculation for working capital, discuss current and quick ratios and how to improve working capital.

June, 7 2018
Differences and Similarities of Capital and Operational Budgeting
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Differences and Similarities of Capital and Operational Budgeting

Discuss the differences between planning for capital expenditures and setting up operational budgets for management control and performance evaluation.

June, 7 2018
How Does a Banker's Acceptance Work?
bizfluent.comArticle
How Does a Banker's Acceptance Work?

Discuss how a banker's acceptance is used to facilitate international trade.

March, 6 2018
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Corporate Form of Business
smallbusiness.chron.com
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Corporate Form of Business
The Advantages of a Holding Company
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
The Advantages of a Holding Company

Setting up a holding company is an excellent corporate form to add companies to the primary business without risking all of the firm's assets.

May, 23 2018
What Are the Six Key Differences Between Multinational & Domestic Financial Management?
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
What Are the Six Key Differences Between Multinational & Domestic Financial Management?

Identify the added complexities of multinational financial management.

June, 12 2018
Importance of Costing in Managerial Decision Making
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Importance of Costing in Managerial Decision Making

Making decisions requires having the correct data. Knowing what every part of operations cost is essential to decision-making

June, 1 2018
How to Calculate the Total Manufacturing Cost in Accounting
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
How to Calculate the Total Manufacturing Cost in Accounting

Show in simple terms the methods used to calculate the cost of manufacturing a product. Include all indirect costs and allocation of appropriate overhead expenses.

March, 19 2018
The Disadvantages & Advantages of Activity-Based Costing
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
The Disadvantages & Advantages of Activity-Based Costing

Most management reports take their data from accounting. Activity-based costing is a more realistic application for determining the real cost of operations and which department or product is consuming the expense

June, 4 2018
The Benefits of Analyzing Cost-Volume-Profit
bizfluent.comArticle
The Benefits of Analyzing Cost-Volume-Profit

Setting up marketing campaign and determining the appropriate pricing strategy requires a thorough understand of the relationships between costs, sales volume and profit levels.

June, 1 2018
How to Calculate FIFO & LIFO
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
How to Calculate FIFO & LIFO

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of FIFO and LIFO and the effects on the income statement of a business

June, 14 2018
How to Calculate the Cost of Sales
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
How to Calculate the Cost of Sales

Business managers must understand the cost of manufacturing their products to set up cost controls and develop a pricing strategy.

How to Calculate an EBITDA Formula
bizfluent.comArticle
How to Calculate an EBITDA Formula

EBITDA is a financial metric used by investors and analysts to delve into the actual income from operations of a company.

March, 1 2018
Traditional Costing Vs. Activity-Based Costing
smallbusiness.chron.comWebsite Copy
Traditional Costing Vs. Activity-Based Costing

This article discussed the importance of using activity-based accounting for more accurate calculations of product costs.

Marketing

7
Example of a Smart Objective for a Marketing Plan
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Example of a Smart Objective for a Marketing Plan

Discuss how SMART objectives apply to a marketing plan.

March, 14 2018
Examples of Positioning Strategy in Marketing
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Examples of Positioning Strategy in Marketing

Discuss the basic marketing strategies to position a product in the market.

March, 15 2018
Marketing Plan for a Clothing Boutique
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Marketing Plan for a Clothing Boutique

Construct a marketing plan for a clothing boutique

March, 15 2018
Different Types of Pricing Strategy
smallbusiness.chron.com
Different Types of Pricing Strategy

Every product must be positioned in the market with a specific pricing strategy.

Penetration Pricing Examples
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Penetration Pricing Examples

Define strategy of penetration pricing and present real-life examples of how major companies have used this strategy to establish positions in the marketplace.

June, 7 2018
Positioning & Differentiation Strategies of Marketing
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Positioning & Differentiation Strategies of Marketing

Discuss how to differentiate products and position them in the marketplace to appeal to the target demographics.

June, 7 2018
What is Premium Pricing Strategy?
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
What is Premium Pricing Strategy?

Discuss the strategy of premium pricing, when it works, present examples and how to implement it.

March, 28 2018

Economics

8
Economic System Types
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Economic System Types

Countries don't typically follow a particular type of economic system. Most economies are blends of free markets and degrees of government controls.

May, 20 2018
What are the Seven Determinants of Demand?
bizfluent.comArticle
What are the Seven Determinants of Demand?

Every marketer needs to understand the sources that create demand for his products.

March, 5 2018
Economic Definition of the Four Factors of Production
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Economic Definition of the Four Factors of Production

In economic terms, discuss the four factors or production.

March, 15 2018
Differences Between Classical & Keynesian Economics
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Differences Between Classical & Keynesian Economics

Discuss the differences between classical and Keynesian economics.

April, 10 2018
What Are the Four Factors That Cause a Shift in Demand?
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
What Are the Four Factors That Cause a Shift in Demand?

Discuss the four factors that affect the position of the demand curve.

Shifting the Demand Curve Vs. Moving Along the Demand Curve
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Shifting the Demand Curve Vs. Moving Along the Demand Curve

Define the factors that determine the position of the demand curve, elasticity and movement along the curve.

May, 1 2018
Factors Affecting Economic Development and Growth
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
Factors Affecting Economic Development and Growth

Discuss how land, labor, capital and technology affect economic development and growth.

June, 2 2018
The Relationship Between Price Elasticity & Total Revenue
smallbusiness.chron.comArticle
The Relationship Between Price Elasticity & Total Revenue

Explain the relationship between price elasticity and demand to develop a pricing strategy

Careers

12
Salary Range for Women Pro Golfers
work.chron.comArticle
Salary Range for Women Pro Golfers

The incomes for professional women golfers ranges from the multi-million dollar earnings of the top golfers to barely covering expenses to those players trying to make the cut.

August, 27 2018
How Much Money Does an NFL Player Make a Year?
work.chron.comArticle
How Much Money Does an NFL Player Make a Year?

The media provides plenty of coverage for the NFL players with multi-million dollar contracts, but most of the others, while making good salaries, don't come anywhere close to earning eight figures.

May, 20 2018
The Average Salary of American Merchant Ship Captains
work.chron.comArticle
The Average Salary of American Merchant Ship Captains

Getting well-paid to travel around the world is not a bad gig. Merchant ship captains have this opportunity.

June, 19 2018
Top-Paying Union Salaries
work.chron.comArticle
Top-Paying Union Salaries

Union members typically receive higher wages and benefits compared to their civilian counterparts. These are the highest-paying union jobs.

June, 19 2018
How Much Money Do Baseball Players Make?
work.chron.com
How Much Money Do Baseball Players Make?

Research and discuss how much baseball players get paid from starting in the minor leagues up to the majors.

May, 22 2018
Which Position in the NFL Gets Paid the Least?
work.chron.comArticle
Which Position in the NFL Gets Paid the Least?

Research and discuss which positions get paid the least in the NFL.

May, 24 2018
Community College Professor: Average Salary by Field and Location
work.chron.comArticle
Community College Professor: Average Salary by Field and Location

Discuss salaries at community college, which fields pay the most and where is the best place to find a job.

June, 7 2018
How Much Does the Military Pay? Salary, Requirements and Job Description
work.chron.comArticle
How Much Does the Military Pay? Salary, Requirements and Job Description

Describe the pay scales, benefits and requirements to join the military and develop a career plan.

June, 7 2018
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